An Ultravoilet light is divided into three bands UVA, UVB, UVC.
UVA: It is long wave UV transparent wavelength, 315 nm to 400 nm UV transparent. It causes skin tan, skin elasticity and collegen fibers.
Uses: Curing Lamps in the Curing Industries.
UVB: It is Medium wave UV with erythema effect, wavelength 280 nm to 320 nm. It promotes Vitamin D formation in body., but exposure for long time is not recommended
Uses : In Health care Physiotherapy Lamps
UVC: It is short wave with bacterial effect wavelength, 200 nm to 280 nm. It is very harmful , for long term exposure causes skin Cancer.
Uses: In Hospitals Germicidal Lamps
There are three fundamental parameter for UV m,measurement. These are wavelength, energy density and irradiance.
Wavelength: To measure the wavelength we require a Spectroradiometer (They can measure individual peaks) or spectrometer.
Irradiance: Intensity is the output energy of UV source. The amount of UV falling on a surface is called irradiance. A cm2 is the area which is used to track the UV from all angles and is determined by direct measurements. It is measured in Watt/cm2 or mW/cm2.
UV Energy Density: It is exposure of UV light with time factor. That is 1 watt for 1 sec equal 1 joule. It is measured in Joules /cm2 or mJ/cm2.
Now it is very important to understand your UV measuring instrument…
It will help you and the customers to better understand the readings.
What factors cause?
Some factors which influence Irradiance Measurements are
UVB or UVA light sources irradiation intensity can be detected by the UV lamp intensity meter. Multi-probe UV measurement device that can be equipped with probes: No matter you want to test the UVA,UVB or UVC band. You can select a suitable probe.
Cables that are used in Electronic Equipment’s play a significant role in overall EMC situation either in positive or negative way…
The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) principle of cables is that communication signals should be kept inside the cables, and outside electromagnetic fields should not disturb the data transmission inside the cable.
Requirement for COAXIAL Cables designed for Broadcast and communication Technology to avoid interference problem
Less than 5 mΩ/m from 5 to 30 MHZ
85 dB from 30 – 1000MHZ( Screening Class A , in IEC 61196-6 )
Majority of Coaxial cables available in market do not full fill the above said requirement that lead to EMC and Mechanical weakness. Thus , affects the immunity of the equipment.
Industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio-frequency equipment – Electromagnetic disturbance characteristics – Limits and methods of measurement
CISPR 11 is a broadly used international standard for electromagnetic compatibility within Europe for electromagnetic emissions or disturbances from Industrial, Scientific, and Medical, ISM, Equipment. CISPR 11 is conserved by CISPR: the International Special Committee on Radio Interference. It has grown from a simple document to a complex document involving a number of types of products
CISPR 11 applies to a very huge variety of equipment including everything from Wi-Fi systems, microwaves through to arc welders, all of which fall into the industrial, scientific and medical category which can use the ISM license-free bands like 2.4 GHz.
CISPR 11, EN 55011 is a standard covering radiated and conducted emissions. Most products will require an assessment of immunity standards, such as EN 61326-1: Electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use; or EN 61000-6-2: Generic Standards Immunity for industrial environments.
It has grown from measuring products at a larger distance (100 meters and 30 meters) for Class A Equipment to measuring them at 3 meters. Class B equipment measurement distances have seen an equivalent degradation of “far-field” radiated emission measurements. This steady erosion of the “laws of physics” is worrisome and a trend to reverse this erosion is overdue in the engineering field of EMC and the EMC Standards arena.
List of tests
Conducted emissions input power
Harmonic current emissions
Voltage fluctuation & flicker
Electrostatic discharge immunity test
Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test
CISPR 32 is a discrete standard formed for Multimedia Equipment having a rated AC or DC supply voltage not exceeding 600 V, but equipment within the scope of CISPR 22 or CISPR 13 is also within the scope of this publication. It incorporates a range of functions which include those in ITE (Information technology), broadcasting, audio, and video equipment. It also includes entertainment lighting control equipment.
In this contemporary world, ITE performs many different functions, features, and capability which were assessed by different compliance standards but now CISPR 32 is a single standard which addresses the case where all different features are integrated instead of having separate compliance standards. This standard is adopted by the European Union.
Two classes of End-User Terminal Equipment Under Test EUT (Class A and Class B) are considered.
The aims of the standard are:
To establish requirements which provide an adequate level of protection of the radio spectrum allowing radio services to operate as intended in the frequency range 9 kHz to 400 GHz;
To specify procedures to ensure the reproducibility of measurement and the repeatability of results.
LIMITS AND METHODS OF MEASUREMENT OF RADIO DISTURBANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRICAL LIGHTING AND SIMILAR EQUIPMENT
Reference standards for Immunity test in CISPR 15
This test simulates electrostatic events and evaluates the ability of the EUT to tolerate such events. Testing is performed in accordance with IEC/EN 61000-4-2. All accessible enclosure surfaces and ports are evaluated unless specified as a static-sensitive surface.
IEC 61000-4-2: 2008
Electromagnetic Compatibility—Testing and measurement techniques – Electrostatic discharge immunity test
The Electromagnetic Susceptibility test exposes the equipment under test to a calibrated uniform field of radiated electromagnetic energy. The EUT is continuously monitored while exposed to the required frequency range and field strength. The test chamber, radiating antennas, and calibrated fields meet the requirements of referenced standards
IEC 61000-4-3: 1996
Radio Frequency Immunity
Electromagnetic Compatibility—Testing and measurement techniques – Radiated radiofrequency electromagnetic field immunity test
Electrical Fast Transient
This test injects a transient/burst interference onto the Mains input power supply and signal I/O lines. The EUT and peripherals are placed on a non-conductive support platform, 10cm above the test ground plane. The EUT is monitored for disturbances during the required exposure time of positive and negative bursts
IEC 61000-4-4: 1995-01 Electrical Fast Transient Immunity
Electromagnetic Compatibility—Testing and measurement techniques – Electrical fast transient/burst immunity
This test simulates a lightning event by inducing transients onto the AC/DC power supply lines in common and differential mode. Testing is performed in accordance with IEC/EN 61000-4-5. The product-specific standard determines the minimum requirement for the exposure to surge transient levels
IEC 61000-4-5: 1995-02 Surge Immunity
Electromagnetic Compatibility—Testing and measurement techniques – Surge immunity test
Conducted RF Immunity
This test injects a disturbance directly onto AC/DC power. Testing is performed in accordance with IEC/EN 61000-4-6. The product-specific standard sets the level, duration, and the frequency range to apply.
IEC 61000-4-6: 1996-04 RF Common Mode Immunity
Electromagnetic Compatibility—Testing and measurement techniques – Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced by radio-frequency fields
This test subjects the EUT to power network faults and “brownouts”. Testing is performed in accordance with IEC/EN 61000-4-11. The EUT is powered up to a nominal voltage, and then software controlled voltage dips and interruptions are introduced
Voltage Dips and Short Interruptions
Electromagnetic Compatibility—Testing and measurement techniques – Voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage variations immunity tests
Device Performance Criteria for Immunity Tests
Criterion A – The equipment shall continue to operate as intended without operator intervention. No degradation of performance or loss of function is allowed below a performance level specified by the manufacturer when the equipment is used as intended. The performance level may be replaced by a permissible loss of performance. If the minimum performance level or the permissible performance loss is not specified by the manufacturer, then either of these may be derived from the product description and documentation, and by what the user may reasonably expect from the equipment if used as intended.
Criterion B – During the test, the degradation of performance is allowed. However, no change in the operating state or stored data is allowed to persist after the test. After the test, the equipment shall continue to operate as intended without operator intervention. The performance level may be replaced by a permissible loss of performance. If the manufacturer does not specify the minimum performance level (or the permissible performance loss), then either of these may be derived from the product description and documentation, or by what the user may reasonably expect from the equipment if used as intended.
Criterion C – Loss of function is allowed, provided the function is self-recoverable or can be restored by the operation of the controls by the user in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Functions, and/or information stored in non-volatile memory, or protected by a battery backup, shall not be lost. For each test method, the test standard specifies the appropriate criterion to be met.
This test measures the levels emanating from the EUT into the AC Mains, evaluating the potential for the EUT to cause radio frequency interference to other electronic devices. The EUT is configured based upon the requirements of the applicable test standard.
This test measures the levels emanating from the EUT, thus evaluating the potential for the EUT to cause radio frequency interference to other electronic devices. Measurement methods is used in accordance with the test standard(s) referenced. The antenna is positioned at several heights while the EUT is rotated 360°. At each antenna height, the receiver scans and records the maximum peak emissions. From the recorded scans, a list of discrete frequencies is developed for that antenna polarity. The antenna is then rotated in polarity and the scan repeated. For each discrete frequency, the turntable is rotated to the determined worst angle and the receive antenna is varied in height from one to four meters for the final maximum emissions. For EUT’s with auto-ranging power supplies, a pre-scan evaluation may be performed to determine “worst-case” radiated emissions.
CISPR 22 (An EMC standard for Information Technology (IT) Equipment)
CISPR 22 for Radio Disturbance Characteristics-Limits and Methods of Measurement. Applicable for IT equipment with a rated supply voltage not exceeding 600 V.
ITC India Pvt Ltd is a NABL approved lab in electronics, electrical and photometry. BIS approved for all lighting products and TEC approved for Electronics. We are performing EMI/EMC testing on electromedical, IT equipment, lighting, Laboratory, and household product. Testing is conducted in a shielding room.
CISPR 22 is accepted by most members of the European Community.
CISPR 22 discriminates between Class A and Class B equipment and it gives figures for conducted and radiated emissions for each class. In addition, CISPR 22 requires certification over the frequency range of 0.15 MHz to 30 MHz for conducted emissions. CISPR limits are provided in dBµV
Part 1 – Safety requirements of Children Cots and folding cots for domestic use
Part 2: Test Methods of Children Cots and Folding cots for Domestic Use
Internal Length between 900mm to 1400 mm
This standard applies to cots that are Fully assembled and are ready to use. It is possible that additional requirements be applied for cots that can be converted into other items (e.g. changing units, playpens).
This standard does not apply to carry cots, cribs, cradles, rocking and swinging cots
Clause 4 of ISO 7175 part 1 specifies the SAFETY REQUIREMENT apply both before and after testing as per ISO 7175 part 2
Safety Requirement as per ISO 7175 -1
Material and surface
Must meet the requirement of ISO 8124-3
Flammability of textile coated textile and plastic coverings
The maximum rate of flame shall be 30 m/s in accordance with ISO 8124-2
The cot should not overturn in accordance with ISO 7175-2 (Cl 6.2 )
Edges and protruding parts
Edges shall be round and free of burrs and sharp edges
This screw shall not be used to fasten components when dismantling the cot for transportation.
Labels and decals
Should not be used on the internal surface of cot sides and ends
In accordance with ISO 7175-2
Castor and Wheels
Should not be fitted exception are there
No accessible hole between 7 mm dia and 12 mm dia unless depth is less than 10mm.
Distance between cot base and sides and end s
25 mm cone shall not pass between cot base and sides and between cot base and ends.
Opening in mesh sides and ends
7mm cone shall not pass through the mesh openings.
Distance between slats of cot base
60 mm cone should not pass between two adjacent slats of the cot base.
Opening in the mesh of cot base
85 mm cone shall not pass through a cot base made of mesh.
Head Entrapment on the exterior of the cot
In accordance with ISO 7175 – 2
Shear and squeeze points
In accordance with ISO 7175 – 2
In accordance with ISO 7175 – 2
All cots should be equipped with at least two locking system
In accordance with ISO 7175 – 2
Sides and ends
In accordance with ISO 7175 – 2
No filing shall be removed from cot rim when testing as per 7175-2, 6.6 bite test
The cot should not overturn as per cl 6.12 of ISO 7175-2
The distance between mattress and sides shall be less than 30mm
The plasting covering should be tested as per ISO 8124-1
Instruction for use
Read carefully and alphabet size >5mm
Part 2 Test Method : Children’s cot and folding cots for domestic use
This standard is designed to prevent the child from climbing out. Does not apply to swinging and rocking chair.
Test forces must be applied with suitable object like cones, cones of dia 7mm, 25mm, 45mm, 60mm, 65mm and 85mm made of plastic or other hard material are required for applying force.
1 . Before testing, Assemble and inspect the cot visually . Tight all the fittings. Determine whether exposed edges, screws, bolts, zips and other fittings are rounded off and do not have sharp edges.
Measure the height of sides, holes and distance between slats of cot base, mesh width, side slats, clearance between cot base and sides and ends.